Tatian s diatessaron online dating

tatian s diatessaron online dating

The general, but not universal, consensus among Bible scholars is that the Old Testament of the Peshitta was translated into Syriac from the Hebrew , probably in the 2nd century AD, and that the New Testament of the Peshitta was translated from the Greek. [1] This New Testament, originally excluding certain disputed books (2 Peter, 2 John, 3 John, Jude, Revelation), had become a standard by the early 5th century. The five excluded books were added in the Harklean Version (616 AD) of Thomas of Harqel . [2] However, the 1905 United Bible Society Peshitta used new editions prepared by the Irish Syriacist John Gwynn for the missing books.

The name 'Peshitta' is derived from the Syriac mappaqtâ pšîṭtâ (ܡܦܩܬܐ ܦܫܝܛܬܐ), literally meaning 'simple version'. However, it is also possible to translate pšîṭtâ as 'common' (that is, for all people), or 'straight', as well as the usual translation as 'simple'. Syriac is a dialect, or group of dialects, of Eastern Aramaic , originating around Edessa . It is written in the Syriac alphabet , and is transliterated into the Latin script in a number of ways: Peshitta, Peshittâ, Pshitta, Pšittâ, Pshitto, Fshitto. All of these are acceptable, but 'Peshitta' is the most conventional spelling in English.

The word itself is a feminine form, meaning "simple", as in "easy to be understood". It seems to have been used to distinguish the version from others which are encumbered with marks and signs in the nature of a critical apparatus . However, the term as a designation of the version has not been found in any Syriac author earlier than the 9th or 10th century.

As regards the Old Testament , the antiquity of the version is admitted on all hands. The tradition, however, that part of it was translated from Hebrew into Syriac for the benefit of Hiram in the days of Solomon is surely a myth. That a translation was made by a priest named Assa, or Ezra, whom the king of Assyria sent to Samaria, to instruct the Assyrian colonists mentioned in 2 Kings 17, is equally legendary. That the translation of the Old Testament and New Testament was made in connection with the visit of Thaddaeus to Abgar at Edessa belongs also to unreliable tradition. Mark has even been credited in ancient Syriac tradition with translating his own Gospel (written in Latin, according to this account) and the other books of the New Testament into Syriac. [3]

Of the New Testament, attempts at translation must have been made very early, and among the ancient versions of New Testament Scripture the Syriac in all likelihood is the earliest. It was at Antioch , the capital of Syria , that the disciples of Christ were first called Christians , and it seemed natural that the first translation of the Christian Scriptures should have been made there. The tendency of recent research, however, goes to show that Edessa , the literary capital, was more likely the place.

If we could accept the somewhat obscure statement of Eusebius [6] that Hegesippus "made some quotations from the Gospel according to the Hebrews and from the Syriac Gospel," we should have a reference to a Syriac New Testament as early as 160–180 AD, the time of that Hebrew Christian writer. One thing is certain, that the earliest New Testament of the Syriac church lacked not only the Antilegomena – 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, Jude, and the Apocalypse – but the whole of the Catholic Epistles . These were at a later date translated and received into the Syriac Canon of the New Testament, but the quotations of the early Syrian Fathers take no notice of these New Testament books.

From the 5th century, however, the Peshitta containing both Old Testament and New Testament has been used in its present form only as the national version of the Syriac Scriptures. The translation of the New Testament is careful, faithful and literal, and the simplicity, directness and transparency of the style are admired by all Syriac scholars and have earned for it the title of "Queen of the versions." [3]

The Diatessaron ( c 150 - 160 C.E. ) (meaning "Harmony of Four") is an early Christian text written by the apologist and ascetic Tatian , [1] who combined the four canonical gospels into a single harmonious narrative. Tatian attempted to resolve some of the contradictions found in the mainstream gospels by integrating them into one story and removing any duplicate information. For example, he omitted the conflicting genealogies of Matthew and Luke thereby creating a streamlined narrative sequence, which, however, was different from both the synoptic gospels and the Gospel of John . [2] Tation's harmony also does not include Jesus' encounter with the adulteress (John 7:53 - 8:11).

Only fifty-six verses in the canonical Gospels do not have a counterpart in the Diatessaron, mostly the genealogies and the pericope adulterae. The final work is about 72 percent the length of the four gospels put together. [3] He followed the gospels closely in terms of wording but put the verses in a new, different sequence.

In the early church, the gospels at first circulated independently, with Matthew being the most popular. [4] The Diatesseron is notable evidence for the authority already enjoyed by the four gospels by the mid-second century. [5] Twenty years after Tatian's harmony, Irenaeus expressly proclaimed the authoritative character of the four gospels. The Diatesseron became the standard text of the gospels in the Syriac-speaking churches down to the fifth century, when it gave way to the four separate Gospels, [5] in the Peshitta version. [6]

There has even been disagreement about what language Tatian used for its original composition, whether Syriac or Greek. [7] Modern scholarship tends to favour a Syriac origin; but even so, the exercise must have been repeated in Greek very shortly afterwards—probably by Tatian himself.

How the Gospel text that was the standard in Syriac Christianity for two centuries should have utterly disappeared requires explaining. Theodoret, bishop of Cyrrhus on the Euphrates in upper Syria in 423, suspecting Tatian having been a heretic, sought out and found more than two hundred copies of the Diatessaron , which he collected and put away, and introduced instead of them the Gospels of the four evangelists. Thus the harmonization was replaced in the fifth century by the canonical four gospels in the Peshitta version, whose Syriac text nevertheless contains many Diatessaronic readings. Gradually, without extant copies to which to refer, the Diatessaron developed a reputation for having been heretical.

The name 'Diatessaron' is Greek for 'through four'; the Syriac name for this gospel harmony is 'Ewangeliyôn Damhalltê' ('Gospel of the Mixed'). Indeed, the Syrian Church also rejected John's Book of Revelation and the Pastoral Epistles. They were included again only in the middle of the sixth century.

In the tradition of Gospel harmonies, there is another Diatessaron , reportedly written by one Ammonius the Alexandrian, to correct perceived deficencies in Tatian's. (Note that this Ammonius may or may not be the Ammonius Saccas who taught Origen and Plotinus ). None of this revised Diatessaron survives, except as it may have influenced the medieval Arabic and Latin texts that were formerly the only existing reflections of Tatian's work.

Tatian of Adiabene , [1] or Tatian the Syrian , [2] [3] [4] Tatian the Assyrian , [5] [6] [7] [8] ( / ˈ t eɪ ʃ ən , - i ən / ; Latin : Tatianus ; Ancient Greek : Τατιανός ; Syriac : ܛܛܝܢܘܣ ‎; c. 120 – c. 180 AD) was a Syrian Christian writer and theologian of the 2nd century.

Tatian's most influential work is the Diatessaron , a Biblical paraphrase , or "harmony", of the four gospels that became the standard text of the four gospels in the Syriac-speaking churches until the 5th-century, after which it gave way to the four separate gospels in the Peshitta version. [9]

Concerning the date and place of his birth, little is known beyond what Tatian tells about himself in his Oratio ad Graecos , chap. xlii ( Ante-Nicene Fathers , ii. 81–82): that he was born in "the land of the Assyrians"; (referring to Syria) [10] Tatian was not born in geographical Assyria (Mesopotamia), he was born to the west of the Euphrates (Syria) scholarly consensus is that he died c. 185 AD, perhaps in Adiabene .

He traveled to Rome , where he first encountered Christianity. During his prolonged stay in Rome, according to his own representation, his abhorrence of the pagan cults sparked deep reflections on religious problems. Through the Old Testament , he wrote, he grew convinced of the unreasonableness of paganism. He adopted the Christian religion and became the pupil of Justin Martyr . During this period Christian philosophers competed with Greek sophists. Like Justin, Tatian opened a Christian school in Rome. It is not known how long he labored in Rome without being disturbed.

Knowledge of Tatian's life following the death of Justin in 165 AD is to some extent obscure. Irenaeus remarks ( Haer. , I., xxvlii. 1, Ante-Nicene Fathers, i. 353) that after the death of Justin, he was expelled from the church for his Encratitic ( ascetic ) views. ( Eusebius claims he founded the Encratitic sect), as well as for being a follower of the gnostic leader Valentinius . It is clear that Tatian left Rome, perhaps to reside for a while in either Greece or Alexandria , where he may have taught Clement of Alexandria . [11] Epiphanius relates that Tatian established a school in Mesopotamia, the influence of which extended to Antioch in Syria, and was felt in Cilicia and especially in Pisidia.

The early development of the Syrian church furnishes a commentary on the attitude of Tatian in practical life. Thus for Aphraates baptism conditions the taking of a vow in which the catechumen promises celibacy. This shows how firmly the views of Tatian were established in Syria, and it supports the supposition that Tatian was the missionary of the countries around the Euphrates .

His Oratio ad Graecos (Address to the Greeks) condemns paganism as worthless, and praises the reasonableness and high antiquity of Christianity. As early as Eusebius , Tatian was praised for his discussions of the antiquity of Moses and of Jewish legislation, and it was because of this chronological section that his Oratio was not generally condemned.

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Tatian - Wikipedia

The Diatessaron ( c 150 - 160 C.E. ) (meaning "Harmony of Four") is an early Christian text written by the apologist and ascetic Tatian , [1] who combined the four canonical gospels into a single harmonious narrative. Tatian attempted to resolve some of the contradictions found in the mainstream gospels by integrating them into one story and removing any duplicate information. For example, he omitted the conflicting genealogies of Matthew and Luke thereby creating a streamlined narrative sequence, which, however, was different from both the synoptic gospels and the Gospel of John . [2] Tation's harmony also does not include Jesus' encounter with the adulteress (John 7:53 - 8:11).

Only fifty-six verses in the canonical Gospels do not have a counterpart in the Diatessaron, mostly the genealogies and the pericope adulterae. The final work is about 72 percent the length of the four gospels put together. [3] He followed the gospels closely in terms of wording but put the verses in a new, different sequence.

In the early church, the gospels at first circulated independently, with Matthew being the most popular. [4] The Diatesseron is notable evidence for the authority already enjoyed by the four gospels by the mid-second century. [5] Twenty years after Tatian's harmony, Irenaeus expressly proclaimed the authoritative character of the four gospels. The Diatesseron became the standard text of the gospels in the Syriac-speaking churches down to the fifth century, when it gave way to the four separate Gospels, [5] in the Peshitta version. [6]

There has even been disagreement about what language Tatian used for its original composition, whether Syriac or Greek. [7] Modern scholarship tends to favour a Syriac origin; but even so, the exercise must have been repeated in Greek very shortly afterwards—probably by Tatian himself.

How the Gospel text that was the standard in Syriac Christianity for two centuries should have utterly disappeared requires explaining. Theodoret, bishop of Cyrrhus on the Euphrates in upper Syria in 423, suspecting Tatian having been a heretic, sought out and found more than two hundred copies of the Diatessaron , which he collected and put away, and introduced instead of them the Gospels of the four evangelists. Thus the harmonization was replaced in the fifth century by the canonical four gospels in the Peshitta version, whose Syriac text nevertheless contains many Diatessaronic readings. Gradually, without extant copies to which to refer, the Diatessaron developed a reputation for having been heretical.

The name 'Diatessaron' is Greek for 'through four'; the Syriac name for this gospel harmony is 'Ewangeliyôn Damhalltê' ('Gospel of the Mixed'). Indeed, the Syrian Church also rejected John's Book of Revelation and the Pastoral Epistles. They were included again only in the middle of the sixth century.

In the tradition of Gospel harmonies, there is another Diatessaron , reportedly written by one Ammonius the Alexandrian, to correct perceived deficencies in Tatian's. (Note that this Ammonius may or may not be the Ammonius Saccas who taught Origen and Plotinus ). None of this revised Diatessaron survives, except as it may have influenced the medieval Arabic and Latin texts that were formerly the only existing reflections of Tatian's work.