Kinetic molecular theory three assumptions of radiometric dating

kinetic molecular theory three assumptions of radiometric dating

The kinetic theory of gases is a scientific model that explains the physical behavior of a gas as the motion of the molecular particles that compose the gas. In this model, the submicroscopic particles (atoms or molecules) that make up the gas are continually moving around in random motion, constantly colliding not only with each other but also with the sides of any container that the gas is within. It is this motion that results in physical properties of the gas such as heat and pressure .

The kinetic theory of gases is also called just the kinetic theory , or the kinetic model,  or the kinetic-molecular model . It can also in many ways be applied to fluids as well as gas. (The example of Brownian motion, discussed below, applies the kinetic theory to fluids.)

The Greek philosopher Lucretius was a proponent of an early form of atomism, though this was largely discarded for several centuries in favor of a physical model of gases built upon the non-atomic work of Aristotle.

The work of Daniel Bernoulli presented the kinetic theory to a European audience, with his 1738 publication of Hydrodynamica . At the time, even principles like the conservation of energy had not been established, and so a lot of his approaches were not widely adopted. Over the next century, the kinetic theory became more widely adopted among scientists, as part of a growing trend toward scientists adopting the modern view of matter as composed of atoms.

The result of these assumptions is that you have a gas within a container that moves around randomly within the container. When particles of the gas collide with the side of the container, they bounce off the side of the container in a perfectly elastic collision, which means that if they strike at a 30 degree angle, they'll bounce off at a 30 degree angle. The component of their velocity perpendicular to the side of the container changes direction, but retains the same magnitude.

The kinetic theory of gases is significant, in that the set of assumptions above lead us to derive the ideal gas law, or ideal gas equation, that relates the pressure ( p ), volume ( V ), and temperature ( T ), in terms of the Boltzmann constant ( k ) and the number of molecules ( N ). The resulting ideal gas equation is:

2. Yes. At any given instant, there are a range of values of molecular speeds in a sample of gas. Any single molecule can speed up or slow down as it collides with other molecules. The average velocity of all the molecules is constant at constant temperature.

(f) calculate the volume in liters, multiply the volume by the density difference to find the lifting capacity of the balloon, subtract the weight of the balloon after converting to pounds:

For each 1.72 mol propane, there are 3 × 1.72 mol = 5.15 mol of CO 2 and 4 × 1.72 mol = 6.88 mol H 2 O. The total volume at STP = 22.4 L × 12.04 = 270 L;

9. The rate at which a gas will diffuse, R, is proportional lo u rms , the root mean square speed of its molecules. The square of this value, in turn, is proportional to the average kinetic energy. The average kinetic energy is: For two different gases, 1 and 2, the constant of proportionality can be represented as k 1 and k 2 , respectively. Thus, As a result of this relationship, no matter at which temperature diffusion occurs, the temperature term will cancel out of the equation and the ratio of rates will be the same.

root mean square velocity ( u rms )
measure of average velocity for a group of particles calculated as the square root of the average squared velocity

This website and its content is subject to our Terms and Conditions. TES Global Ltd is registered in England (Company No 02017289) with its registered office at 26 Red Lion Square London WC1R 4HQ.



The Kinetic Molecular Theory - Purdue University

2. Yes. At any given instant, there are a range of values of molecular speeds in a sample of gas. Any single molecule can speed up or slow down as it collides with other molecules. The average velocity of all the molecules is constant at constant temperature.

(f) calculate the volume in liters, multiply the volume by the density difference to find the lifting capacity of the balloon, subtract the weight of the balloon after converting to pounds:

For each 1.72 mol propane, there are 3 × 1.72 mol = 5.15 mol of CO 2 and 4 × 1.72 mol = 6.88 mol H 2 O. The total volume at STP = 22.4 L × 12.04 = 270 L;

9. The rate at which a gas will diffuse, R, is proportional lo u rms , the root mean square speed of its molecules. The square of this value, in turn, is proportional to the average kinetic energy. The average kinetic energy is: For two different gases, 1 and 2, the constant of proportionality can be represented as k 1 and k 2 , respectively. Thus, As a result of this relationship, no matter at which temperature diffusion occurs, the temperature term will cancel out of the equation and the ratio of rates will be the same.

root mean square velocity ( u rms )
measure of average velocity for a group of particles calculated as the square root of the average squared velocity